Melbana Energy Limited Annual Report 2022

2 Significant accounting policies (continued) Subsidiaries are all those entities over which the Consolidated Entity has control. The Consolidated Entity controls an entity when the Consolidated Entity is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power to direct the activities of the entity. Specifically, the Consolidated Entity controls an investee if and only if the Consolidated Entity has: – Power over the investee (i.e. existing rights that give it the current ability to direct the relevant activities of the investee); – Exposure, or rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee; and – The ability to use its power over the investee to affect its returns. When the Consolidated Entity has less than a majority of the voting or similar rights of an investee, the Consolidated Entity considers all relevant facts and circumstances in assessing whether it has power over an investee, including: – The contractual arrangement with the other vote holders of the investee; – Rights arising from other contractual arrangements; – The Consolidated Entity’s voting rights and potential voting rights. Subsidiaries are fully consolidated from the date on which control is transferred to the Consolidated Entity. They are de-consolidated from the date that control ceases. Intercompany transactions, balances and unrealised gains on transactions between entities in the Consolidated Entity are eliminated. Unrealised losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of the impairment of the asset transferred. Accounting policies of subsidiaries have been changed where necessary to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the Consolidated Entity. The acquisition of subsidiaries is accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting. A change in ownership interest, without the loss of control, is accounted for as an equity transaction, where the difference between the consideration transferred and the book value of the share of the non-controlling interest acquired is recognised directly in equity attributable to the parent. Where the Consolidated Entity loses control over a subsidiary, it derecognises the assets including goodwill, liabilities and non-controlling interest in the subsidiary together with any cumulative translation differences recognised in equity. The Consolidated Entity recognises the fair value of the consideration received and the fair value of any investment retained together with any gain or loss in profit or loss. Foreign currency translation The Consolidated Entity’s consolidated financial statements are presented in Australian dollars, which is also the parent company’s functional currency. Each entity in the Consolidated Entity determines its own functional currency and items included in the financial statements of each entity are measured using that functional currency. Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded in the functional currency by applying the exchange rates ruling at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rate at the dates of the initial transactions. Non-monetary items measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value is determined. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rate of exchange ruling at the balance date. All exchange differences in the consolidated report are taken to profit or loss. Foreign operations The assets and liabilities of foreign operations are translated into Australian dollars using the exchange rates at the reporting date. The revenues and expenses of foreign operations are translated into Australian dollars using the average exchange rates, which approximate the rates at the dates of the transactions, for the period. All resulting foreign exchange differences are recognised in other comprehensive income through the foreign currency reserve in equity. The foreign currency reserve is recognised in profit or loss when the foreign operation or net investment is disposed of. Revenue recognition The Consolidated Entity recognises revenue as follows: Other income Other income is recognised when it is received or when the right to receive payment is established. Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended 30 June 2022 28 Melbana Energy Limited Annual Report 2022