Melbana Energy Limited Annual Report 2022

2 Significant accounting policies (continued) Share-based payments Equity-settled share-based compensation benefits are provided to employees. Equity-settled transactions are awards of shares, or options over shares, that are provided to employees in exchange for the rendering of services. The costs of equity-settled transactions are measured at fair value on grant date. Fair value is independently determined using either the Binomial or Black-Scholes option pricing model that takes into account the exercise price, the term of the option, the impact of dilution, the share price at grant date and expected price volatility of the underlying share, the expected dividend yield and the risk free interest rate for the term of the option, together with non-vesting conditions that do not determine whether the Consolidated Entity receives the services that entitle the employees to receive payment. No account is taken of any other vesting conditions. The costs of equity-settled transactions are recognised as an expense with a corresponding increase in equity over the vesting period. The cumulative charge to profit or loss is calculated based on the grant date fair value of the award, the best estimate of the number of awards that are likely to vest and the expired portion of the vesting period. The amount recognised in profit or loss for the period is the cumulative amount calculated at each reporting date less amounts already recognised in previous periods. If equity-settled awards are modified, as a minimum an expense is recognised as if the modification has not been made. An additional expense is recognised, over the remaining vesting period, for any modification that increases the total fair value of the share-based compensation benefit as at the date of modification. If the non-vesting condition is within the control of the Consolidated Entity or employee, the failure to satisfy the condition is treated as a cancellation. If the condition is not within the control of the Consolidated Entity or employee and is not satisfied during the vesting period, any remaining expense for the award is recognised over the remaining vesting period, unless the award is forfeited. If equity-settled awards are cancelled, it is treated as if it has vested on the date of cancellation, and any remaining expense is recognised immediately. If a new replacement award is substituted for the cancelled award, the cancelled and new award is treated as if they were a modification. Fair value measurement When an asset or liability, financial or non-financial, is measured at fair value for recognition or disclosure purposes, the fair value is based on the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date; and assumes that the transaction will take place either: in the principal market; or in the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market. Fair value is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming they act in their economic best interests. For non-financial assets, the fair value measurement is based on its highest and best use. Valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, are used, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs. Issued capital Ordinary shares are classified as equity and paid up capital is recognised at the fair value of the consideration received by the Consolidated Entity. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares or options are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the proceeds. Earnings per share Basic earnings per share Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the profit attributable to the owners of Melbana Energy Limited, excluding any costs of servicing equity other than ordinary shares, by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the financial year, adjusted for bonus elements in ordinary shares issued during the financial year. Diluted earnings per share Diluted earnings per share adjusts the figures used in the determination of basic earnings per share to take into account the after income tax effect of interest and other financing costs associated with dilutive potential ordinary shares and the weighted average number of shares assumed to have been issued for no consideration in relation to dilutive potential ordinary shares. 33 Melbana Energy Limited Annual Report 2022