Melbana Energy Limited Annual Report 2022

2 Significant accounting policies (continued) Financial Instruments (i) Trade Receivables Trade receivables are amounts due from customers for goods sold in the ordinary course of business. They are generally due for settlement within 30 days and therefore are all classified as current. Trade receivables are recognised initially at the amount of consideration that is unconditional unless they contain significant financing components, when they are recognised at fair value. The Consolidated Entity holds the trade receivables with the objective to collect the contractual cash flows and therefore measures them subsequently at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Details about the group’s impairment policies and the calculation of the loss allowance are provided in (ii) below. (ii) Allowance for expected credit loss The Consolidated Entity applies the AASB 9 simplified approach to measuring expected credit losses which uses a lifetime expected loss allowance for all trade receivables. To measure the expected credit losses, trade receivables have been grouped based on shared credit risk characteristics and the days past due. (iii) Trade and other payables Trade payables are unsecured and are usually paid within 30 days of recognition. The carrying amounts of trade and other payables are considered to be the same as their fair values, due to their short-term nature. (iv) Loans and borrowings Loans and borrowings are recognised initially at fair value, being the consideration received, less directly attributable transaction costs, with subsequent measurement at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Any gains or losses arising from non-substantial modifications are recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss and the financial liability continues to amortise using the original effective interest rate. Where there is an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date, the loans or borrowings are classified as non-current. Cash and cash equivalents Cash and cash equivalents includes cash at bank and on hand, deposits held at call with financial institutions, other short-term, highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. For the purpose of the consolidated statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and cash equivalents as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdrafts. Joint operations A joint operation is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement, have rights to assets, and obligations for the liabilities of the joint arrangement. Joint control is the contractual agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require unanimous consent of the parties sharing control. The Consolidated Entity accounts for its share of the joint operation assets, and liabilities it has incurred, its share of any liabilities jointly incurred with other ventures, income from the sale or use of its share of the joint operation’s output, together with its share of the expenses incurred by the joint operation, and any expenses it incurs in relation to its interest in the joint operation. Investments and other financial assets Investments and other financial assets are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs are included as part of the initial measurement, except for financial assets at fair value through profit or loss. Such assets are subsequently measured at either amortised cost or fair value depending on their classification. Classification is determined based on both the business model within which such assets are held and the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset unless an accounting mismatch is being avoided. Financial assets are derecognised when the rights to receive cash flows have expired or have been transferred and the Consolidated Entity has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership. When there is no reasonable expectation of recovering part or all of a financial asset, its carrying value is written off. Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended 30 June 2022 30 Melbana Energy Limited Annual Report 2022