Melbana Energy Limited Annual Report 2022

2 Significant accounting policies (continued) Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income include equity investments which the Consolidated Entity intends to hold for the foreseeable future and has irrevocably elected to classify them as such upon initial recognition. Subsequent measurement of financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income Gains and losses on these financial assets are never recycled to profit or loss. Dividends are recognised as other income in the statement of profit or loss when the right of payment has been established, except when the Consolidated Entity benefits from such proceeds as a recovery of part of the cost of the financial asset, in which case, such gains are recorded in other comprehensive income (OCI). Equity instruments designated at fair value through OCI are not subject to impairment assessment. The Consolidated Entity elected to classify irrevocably its listed equity investment under this category. Impairment of financial assets The Consolidated Entity recognises a loss allowance for expected credit losses on financial assets which are either measured at amortised cost or fair value through other comprehensive income (only debt instruments, not equity instruments). The measurement of the loss allowance depends upon the Consolidated Entity’s assessment at the end of each reporting period as to whether the financial instrument’s credit risk has increased significantly since initial recognition, based on reasonable and supportable information that is available, without undue cost or effort to obtain. Where there has not been a significant increase in exposure to credit risk since initial recognition, a 12-month expected credit loss allowance is estimated. This represents a portion of the asset’s lifetime expected credit losses that is attributable to a default event that is possible within the next 12 months. Where a financial asset has become credit impaired or where it is determined that credit risk has increased significantly, the loss allowance is based on the asset’s lifetime expected credit losses. The amount of expected credit loss recognised is measured on the basis of the probability weighted present value of anticipated cash shortfalls over the life of the instrument discounted at the original effective interest rate. For financial assets mandatorilymeasured at fair value through other comprehensive income (only debt instruments, not equity instruments), the loss allowance is recognised in other comprehensive income with a corresponding expense through profit or loss. In all other cases, the loss allowance reduces the asset’s carrying value with a corresponding expense through profit or loss. Plant and equipment Plant and equipment is stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment. Historical cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the items. Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis to write off the net cost of each item of plant and equipment over their expected useful lives which range from 3 to 15 years. The residual values, useful lives and depreciation methods are reviewed, and adjusted if appropriate, at each reporting date. An item of plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on de-recognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the item) is included in the profit or loss in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income in the period the item is derecognised. Impairment The carrying values of plant and equipment are reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. For an asset that does not generate largely independent cash inflows, the recoverable amount is determined for the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. Impairment exists when the carrying value of an asset exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. The asset is written down to its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount of plant and equipment is the greater of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. Right-of-use assets A right-of-use asset is recognised at the commencement date of a lease. The right-of-use asset is measured at cost, which comprises the initial amount of the lease liability, adjusted for, as applicable, any lease payments made at or before the commencement date net of any lease incentives received, any initial direct costs incurred, and, except where included in the cost of inventories, an estimate of costs expected to be incurred for dismantling and removing the underlying asset, and restoring the site or asset. 31 Melbana Energy Limited Annual Report 2022